NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES

NOUNS

Nouns are  words used for naming things, animals, places etc. There are many types of nouns, but for the sake of this lesson, let’s talk about the most occurring two: Proper nouns and Common nouns.

Proper Nouns

Proper nouns are used to identify specific or particular words.

For example: Jack lives in Atlanta. In this expression, Jack is a Proper noun, referring to a particular person, while Atlanta is a Proper noun referring to a particular place.

Sharon is a girl.

His dog’s name is Bingo.

Mercedes is an expensive car.

Common Nouns

Common nouns are used for naming general words.

Boys are stronger than girls.

Teachers are better than Nurses.

I love dogs.

My city is the most beautiful.

Boys, girls, teachers, nurses and dogs are all common nouns.

 

PLURAL OF NOUNS . 
Nouns are pluralized in many ways like:
1.       Most nouns are pluralized by adding an‘s’ to the singular noun.
DogDogs
BookBooks
CapCaps
SchoolSchools
ScarfScarfs
ParkParks
The ‘s’ is pronounced as /s/ after a ‘p, k or f’, but it is pronounced as /z/ when‘s’ is placed after words ending with ‘ce, ge, se and ze’.
E.g.
Placeplaces
Ageages
Horsehorses
Prizeprizes
2.       Nouns ending in ‘o’, ‘ch’, ‘sh’, ‘ss’ and ‘x’ form their plural by adding ‘es’.
PotatoPotatoes
TorchTorches
BrushBrushes
CrossCrosses
BoxBoxes
However, foreign-loan words ending in ‘o’ only add an‘s’.
E.g. Kilo - Kilos, Photo - Photos, Piano - Pianos
3.Nouns ending in –y following a consonant change it to –ies
LorryLorries
LadyLadies
BabyBabies
SkySkies
However, nouns ending in –y following a vowel form their plural by adding an ’s’.
4.        Nouns ending in –f and –fe change it to –ves.
HalfHalves
CalfCalves
KnifeKnives
WifeWives
LoafLoaves
SelfSelves
5.       Some other nouns form their plural by changing their vowels.
ToothTeeth
FootFeet
GooseGeese
ManMen
WomanWomen
MouseMice
LouseLice
Note: Oxoxen
Childchildren

ADJECTIVES

Adjectives are words used to describe things, ideas or persons. In English, adjectives usually come before the nouns.

E.g. Good, bad, ugly, beautiful, intelligent, serious, great, kind, etc.

I have a beautiful friend.

She is intelligent.

He is a good man.

A bad idea.

They are lazy.

He is not a serious student.

I have a great guy.

Deborah is a kind girl.

That man is ugly.

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