Auxiliary Verbs(to be & to have)

In Spanish ser(to be), estar(to be) and tener(to have) are three important auxiliary verbs. Note that subject pronouns are not usually used in Spanish except for emphasis. Here they are:

Yo(I), tú(you), él/ella/usted(he/she/you(polite sing.), nosotros,nosotras(we), vososotros/vosotras(you), ellos/ellas/ustedes(they/you(polite plu.)

AUXILIARY VERBS (to be & to have)
In Spanish ser(to be), estar(to be) and tener(to have) are three important auxiliary verbs. Note that subject pronouns are not usually used in Spanish except for emphasis. Here they are:
Yo(I), tú(you), él/ella/usted(he/she/you(polite sing.), nosotros,nosotras(we), vososotros/vosotras(you), ellos/ellas/ustedes(they/you(polite plu.)
   
Ser - To be
Present tensePast tense(imperfect)
soy (soy)I amera (eh-rah)I was
eres (ay-rehs)you areeri (eh-ree)you were
es (ehs)he/she/it isera (eh-rah)he/she was/you were
somos (soh-moh)we areéramos (eh-rah-mohs)we were
sois (soh-ees)you areerais (eh-rah-ees)you were
son (sohn)they/you areeran (eh-rahn)they /you were
Future Tense
seré (say-ray)I will be
serás (say-rahs)you will be
será (say-rah)he/she/it you will be
seremos (say-ray-mohs)we will be
seréis (say-rays)you will be
serán (say-rahn)they/you will be
Uses of ser
Ser is used in the following ways:
1. To show profession, nationality or religion.
MasculineFeminine
el abogado
(ah-boh-gah-doh)
la abogada
(ah-boh-gah-gah)
Lawyer
el ingeniero
( een-eh-nyeh-roh)
la ingeniera
(een-eh-nyeh-rah)
Engineer
el enfermero
(ehn-fehr-meh-roh)
la enfermera
(ehn-fehr-meh-rah)
Nurse
el medico
(may-dee-koh)
la medico
(may-dee-koh)
Doctor
el banquero
(bahn-kay-roh)
la banquera (bahn-kay-rah)Banker
el estudiante
(ehs-too-dyahn-tay)
la estudiante
(ehs-too-dyahn-tay)
Student
el profesor
(proh-feh-sohr)
la professor
(proh-feh-sohr)
Teacher
el juez (hoo-ays)la juez (hoo-ays)Judge
el piloto
(pee-loh-toh)
la piloto (pee-loh-toh)Pilot
el peluquero
(pay-loo-kay-roh)
la peluquera
(pay-loo-kay-rah)
Hair dresser
Estar – To be
Present tense Past tense (imperfect)
estoy (ehs-toy)I amestaba (ehs-tah-bah)I was
estás (ehs-tahs)you areestabas (ehs-tah-bahs)you were
está (ehs-tah)he/she/it isestaba (ehs-tah-bah)he/she was
estamos (ehs-tah-mohs)we areestábamos (ehs-tah-bah-mohs)we were
estáis (ehs-tah-ees)you areestais (ehs-tah-ees)you were
están (ehs-tahn)they/you areestan (ehs-tahn)They were
Future tense
estaré (ehs-tah-ray)I will be
estarás (ehs-tah-rahs)you will be
estará (ehs-tah-rah)he/she/it will be
estaremos (ehs-tah-ray-mohs)we will be
estaréis (ehs-tah-rays)you will be
estatán (ehs-tah-rahn)They will be
Present tense Past tense(imperfect)
tengo (tehn-goh)I havetenía (tay-nee-ah) I had
tienes (tyay-nays )you havetenías (tay-nee-ahs) You had
tiene (tyay-nay)he/she/it hastenía (tay-nee-ah) he/she/it had
tenemos (tay-nay mohs)we haveteníamos (tay-nee-ah-mohs) we had
tenéis (tay-nays)you haveteníais (tay-nee-ah-ees) you had
tienen (tyeh-nehn)they havetenían (tay-nee-ahn) they had
Future tense
tendré (tehn-dray)I will have
tendrás (tehn-drahs)you will have
tendra (tehn-drah)he/she/it will have
tendremos ( tehn-dray-mohs )we will have
tendréis (tehn-drays)you will have
tendrán ( tehn-drahn)they will have
Uses of Tener
Some expressions using the verb ‘to be’ in English use tener in Spanish.
Examples
Tener calor to be hotTener prisa to be in a hurry
Tener frío to be coldTener celos to be jealous
Tener hambre to be hungryTener éxito to be succesful
Tener sed to be thirstyTener sueño to be sleepy
Tener miedo to be afraidTener suerte to be lucky

 

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